Printing originated in China and originated from the unique seal culture of Chinese people. It is a combination of the two methods of expanding stone and stamping. It has accumulated many people ‘s experience over a long period of time and is the crystallization of human wisdom. The earliest extant documents and the earliest Chinese engraving and printing materials were in 600 A.D., that is, the early Tang Dynasty.
In the 7th century, woodblock printing appeared in the early Tang Dynasty.
In the reign of emperor Renzong of Song Dynasty (1041-1049), Bi Sheng invented clay movable type printing. This is the earliest type printing in the recorded world.
From 1241 to 1250, Yang Gu printed Zhu Xi’s primary school, Jin Si Lu and Lu Zuqian’s collection of classics and history in movable type for Yao Shu, Kublai Khan’s counselor.
Wang Zhen (1260-1330), a scientist of the Yuan Dynasty, invented the wood type Version (some people also support that there was a wood type version in the Song Dynasty, and put forward several versions to prove it. Among them, Mao poetry is often mentioned as the movable type of the Song Dynasty. Because of the horizontal arrangement of the word “self” in one edition of the book “Tang Feng Shan you Shu”, it can be proved that it is a movable type edition.
In the book of agriculture, Wang Zhen narrated the wooden movable type: “now there is a method of defecation, making wooden plates for helmets, cutting bamboo pieces for lines, carving wood for words, using a small fine saw to open, each making a word, using a small knife to repair four sides, comparing the size, height together. Then typesetting line, cut into bamboo clip. Helmets are full of characters. They are made of wooden ones, so that all the characters are fixed. Then brush it with ink. Wang Zhen printed 60 thousand words of Jingde County annals in 1299.
The early records of Chinese metal movable type can be seen in Wang Zhen (1260-1330), a scientist of the Yuan Dynasty, in his calligraphy of making movable type and printing (1298): “in modern times, the characters are made of tin, which are made of iron bars and lines, embedded in helmets, and printed on the boundary. However, the above words are difficult to make ink, and the rate of overprinting is bad, so they cannot be used for a long time.”
In the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), there were two-color red and black overprinted books.
In 1322, Yin Ma, Fenghua County, Zhejiang Province, called de, printed forty-three volumes and twenty volumes of “the meaning of the University” in 100000 wood movable type.
The printing materials of wood type typesetting in Ming Dynasty include Bi Shui Qun Ying Wai Hui Yuan, Si you Zhai Cong Shuo, Yan Zi Chunqiu, Xiao Zi Lu, Luancheng Ji, etc.
In the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), there were two-color and four-color overprinting printing products, which could print multi-level color printing products.
In the middle of the 15th century, John Gutenberg (1397-1468) began to study movable type printing in 1436. In 1440, he made a spiral wooden hand plate printer, and in 1445, he set up a factory to print books. Until 1477, it spread almost all over Europe and became popular in Europe, becoming the origin of modern printing.
In 1589, the Western lead type and printing press were introduced into China, and the Chinese publishing industry began to print books with lead type. In 1590, the earliest book of Western movable type printing was Japan’s envoy to Rome (Latin), and in 1819, the new and Old Testament (Chinese characters) was printed. In 1838, the English taiyor made a set of Chinese type in Singapore. In 1842, he was reported to Hong Kong, and in 1844, the American Gu Xuan set up a Huahua Bible study in Macao, using taiyor’s set of type to manage the type printing Business.
In 1733, the 11th year of Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty, the Emperor Yongzheng issued an order to make wooden lettering. 253500 woodcut typefaces were completed within one year, and 2300 volumes of the collection of precious books of Wuying hall were printed. Jin Jian described the process of making wooden movable type in the book “collection program of Wuying hall” with both pictures and texts.
In 1845, Germany produced the first rapid printing press.
In 1860, the United States produced the first batch of wheel turbines. After that, Germany successively produced two-color rapid printing press, rotary press for newspaper printing, and two-color rotary press. By 1900, six color rotary press was made.
Since 1845, after about a century, the developed countries have realized the mechanization of printing industry.
In 1859, American Chinese library moved to Shanghai. In this year, American Jiang Boli, a technician of the library, improved the Chinese movable type specifications, set 37 standards, and laid the foundation of the Chinese type system. He also invented electroplated typeset and Yuanbao typeset. He also divides Chinese type into three categories: common, standby and rare, each of which is arranged in the radical lexicon of Kangxi dictionary. It improves the production efficiency of the printed book. Since then, China has started to establish movable type printing institutions, and the printing industry has gradually embarked on the road of mechanization. At the same time, the Western lithography has also been introduced into China and has achieved considerable development. Gravure printing began to be used in China at the end of the century, and the form of book products also changed – hardcover and paperback began to appear.